Cuban culture is diverse mostly due to the influence of Asian, French, African, and Spanish migrants. The country has produced many eminent artists in various areas, including theater, dance, ballet, film, and literature. The Cuban population reflects a mix of cultures that happily live together and cooperate with each other for the common benefit. Cubans have undergone significant transformation since the revolutionary era, and the government has started playing a decisive role in this regard. In general, Cuba is a peaceful, friendly, and benevolent island country of inventive, unique, and resilient people who use all their communication skills to express their views and vision to each other and foreignersas students write in their term papers

Europeans, Africans, and Indians have formed the current population of Cuba. Despite living on one island, individuals of different races have combined old and new traditions, thereby distinctively contributing to the nation’s culture. Transculturation does not force one culture to cede its identity to another one. Cultures retain modified versions of their identities, they simply reinterpret aspects that they observe in other groups and constitute their own.

Cubans show a willingness to compromise and share relevant information, thoughts, and ideas with each other, thereby establishing trust. They also share feelings with those individuals whom they trust and respect and those whose opinion they highly value, including family members, relatives, and friends. However, some factors still adversely affect the exchange of thoughts and ideas. Differences in sexuality, race, and class influence the way various groups mix and interact with each other. Moreover, there is still a limited access to education. Consequently, communication poses a significant challenge, particularly to those who lack literacy skills. Inexperienced, unskillful, and uneducated individuals face difficulties while talking to others, particularly physicians, and expressing their healthcare concerns. The Cuban officials have opened language schools; moreover, the engagement of individuals in courses has significantly facilitated their communication skills, particularly while speaking English and other foreign languages. Finally, unlike other countries, Cubans have a limited media freedom. Only two broadcasting TV stations operate in Cuba.

Issues of sexuality and racial discrimination are the most sensitive and delicate ones. These subjects continue to boost debates, and in case of any violations and breaking the law, officials may declare these topics as taboo. In addition to racism, the law prohibits and punishes the expression of an unfavorable attitude toward people living in Cuba. It is common for Cubans to heatedly argue with each other and complain. The controversy may not finish until all the parties involved in the discussion are exhausted from disputes. Afterward, the social tension may significantly relieve. In case of intense interpersonal conflicts, Cubans need to develop a subtle approach to address burning issues. The locals try to avoid open conflicts, as they are not willing to continue the confrontation. The social norms developed in communities are supposed to minimize the tension and avoid any misunderstanding and possible accusation in the future.

While analyzing non-verbal communication based on the Purnell’s model for cultural competence, which serves as a guide for caring for a diverse population, it can be seen that Cubans have developed various strategies to ease their communication process and interaction with natives and people of other cultures. Touching reflects one’s affection, feelings, and positive thoughts, and it is not banned in Cuba. Family members, relatives, friends, and peers can freely practice touching as it does not imply anything sexual and intimate. Touch between different genders is sensitive; therefore, the main attention is paid to the age of people involved in the process, and, in case of any issues, grownups and competent bodies precisely control it. In the medical sphere, specialists are among a few individuals who can freely touch their patients during regular checkups and care administration.

Unlike other nationalities, Cubans recognize the importance of making eye contact while greeting each other. Youth also maintains direct eye contact, thereby demonstrating signs of seriousness, respect, and attentiveness toward interlocutors, particularly strangers and elderly. It is also important to maintain eye contact while cooperating with family members, friends, and peers. However, in some cases, older people prefer to limit eye contact, considering it the same sign of respect, wisdom, and admiration toward others.

Like other nations, cultures, and nationalities, Cubans widely use hand and body gestures, as well as facial expressions, to emphasize and express their views, thoughts, feelings, and other aspects during the communication process. Their application is the most useful in emotional circumstances, and speaking loudly is acceptable in this case. While talking to friends and family members, Cubans prefer standing close to each other. However, it is common to maintain distance while communicating with strangers or mentors on important issues. Distancing may vary depending on the generation, acculturation, age, and gender. Cuban females of advanced age usually distance themselves from males while communicating.

In the Cuban culture, females can be considered rude if they do not meet each other with the cheek kissing; men act in a wrong manner if they do not greet each other with a handshake. Males can also freely exchange hugs and greet each other the way they want. As mentioned earlier, touching does not have any sexual connotation, and it is not considered taboo. Instead, it demonstrates the affection. There are no particular appropriate ways of standing when communicating with friends and family members. However, the maintenance of upright posture is crucial in professional activity, as, in this case, interlocutors demonstrate their maturity, respect, and confidence to each other.

The Cuban culture is mostly perceived as past-oriented. In most cases, Cubans refer to their experiences to make relevant decisions nowadays. For them, the past serves as a reference point reflecting traditional values, direction, and guidance. In recent years, the Cuban culture has significantly transformed due to the great cultural interchange, technological advancements, and globalization. Although the access to the Internet is still limited, the practices of the uprising, conservativeness, and rebellion have been diluted by the use of the social media by young people.

Due to the limited resources, the Cuban officials are forced to develop an adequate, integrated, and comprehensive healthcare that would combine public health and preventive measures. Competent bodies also contrast cultural perspectives with current medical practices to make relevant health-related decisions. Winter recognizes the Cuban health system as efficient and excellent. Despite economic sanctions imposed by the U.S. officials and limited vital resources, the Cuban nation has received an uninterrupted access to all necessary segments. The outcome is similar to the one that developed countries demonstrate. The cultural differences of patients can be easily addressed through their native culture, practices, and links with close people in the community.

To conclude, Cuban culture is rich, distinct, and past-oriented. Cubans and individuals of various nationalities, ethnicities, and cultures have significantly contributed to the national history and substantially enriched it in such spheres as art, dance, and music. In order to convey feelings, ideas, and thoughts, Cubans widely use sound and facial expressions so that their interlocutors can easily and better understand them. In order to reach success, the locals have developed various strategies relating to eye contact, distance, greetings, and touching to ease their communication process and interaction with natives and people of other cultures. Various populations within and outside of the island country continue to impress each other through the distinct cultural exchange and mutual convergence.

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